Wednesday, September 9, 2009

Mahabharat the Greatest and immortal Epic

Mahabharata (Sanskrit: महाभारत) is an ancient literary work supposedly written by Vyasa or Vyasa Begawan from India. This book consists of eighteen books, so called Astadasaparwa (asta = 8, dasa = 10, parwa = books). However, others believe that this story is really a collection of many stories that originally scattered, collected since the 4th century BC.

Briefly, the Mahabharata tells the story of the five Pandavas conflict with their cousins, the hundred Kauravas, the government land rights disputes Astina country. The peak is in the field of war Bhāratayuddha Kurusetra and battle lasted for eighteen days.

The influence of culture

In addition to epic (epic), the Mahabharata also contains the values of Hindu mythology and many other clues. Thus the story of the Mahabharata is considered sacred, especially by the Hindu religion. The story originally written in Sanskrit is then copied into other languages, particularly following the development of Hindu civilization in the past in Asia, including in Southeast Asia.

In Indonesia, a copy of various parts of the Mahabharata, as Adiparwa, Wirataparwa, Bhismaparwa and perhaps some other parwa, known to have been written in prose Kawi (Old Javanese) since the late 10th century AD. Ie in the reign of king Dharmawangsa (991-1016 AD) of Kadiri. Because of its nature, the prose is also known as parwa literature.

Popular in the first period and is composing the story in the form of Kakawin, namely poetry metrum India lawas with ancient Javanese language. Famous one is kakawin Arjunawiwaha (Arjunawiwaha, marriage Arjuna) Kanwa mpu composition. The work allegedly written between 1028-1035 AD This (Zoetmulder, 1984) is dedicated to the king of the kingdom Medang Airlangga Kamulan, king Dharmawangsa law.

Other literature is also famous Kakawin Bhāratayuddha, composed by mpu Sedah and later completed by mpu Panuluh (Panaluh). This kakawin Jayabhaya dedicated to King (1135-1157 AD), written at about the end of the reign of the king of Daha (Kediri) is. Beyond that, mpu Panuluh Kakawin Hariwangsa also wrote in the Jayabaya, and is expected also in the Gaţotkacāśraya composed Kertajaya king (1194-1222 AD) of Kediri.

Several other derivatives kakawin Mahabharata which is also important to be called, among them Kŗşņāyana (mpu work TRIGUNA) and Bhomāntaka (author unknown) both of the Kediri kingdom era, and Pārthayajña (mpu Tanakung) at the end of the Majapahit era. Copies of ancient manuscripts written in the pages of palm leaves are also known stored in Bali.

In addition, the literary masterpiece, also develops and provides inspiration for various forms of cultural and artistic expression, especially in Java and Bali, ranging from sculpture and sculpture (relief) in the temples, the art of dance, painting to performance art such as shadow puppets and puppet people. In the more recent period, the book has been copied Bhāratayuddha also by Yasadipura Surakarta court poet in the modern Java language around the 18th century.

In the popular literary world of Indonesia, Mahabharata story is presented through a comic form makes this story widely known among laymen. Famous one is the work of R.A. Kosasih.


Mahabharata is an epic story that is divided into eighteen books, or often called Astadasaparwa. Book series tells the story of the chronology of events in the Mahabharata, the story of their ancestors since the Pandavas and Kauravas (Yayati, Yadu, Puru, Kuru, Dushyanta, Sakuntala, Bharata) to the story of the Pandavas received in heaven.

Book Title
Adiparwa Book contains various Hindu breathe stories, such as playback Mandaragiri story, a story that Dhomya Bagawan third test students, the story of the ancestors Pandavas and Kauravas, Rsi Vyasa's birth story, the story of childhood Pandavas and the Kauravas, the story of the death at the hands of demon Hidimba Bhimasena, and the story of Draupadi Arjuna get.

The Book contains the story of meeting Sabhaparwa Pandavas and Kauravas in a gambling hall to play, the plan of Duryodhana. Shakuni sly efforts, the game was won for a couple of times by the Kauravas to match the agreement, the Pandavas had to retreat to the woods for 12 years and after that through the disguises for 1 year.

The Book contains the story of Pandavas Wanaparwa during the 12-year self-exile in the forest. In the book also tells the story of Arjuna who meditated in the Himalayan mountains to get magic weapon. The story is the subject of Arjuna Arjunawiwaha story.

Wirataparwa Book contains the story of one-year period the Pandavas incognito in Virata kingdom after suffering exile for 12 years. Yudhisthira disguised as religious scholars, as a cook Bhima, Arjuna as a dance teacher, Nakula as a tamer of horses, Sahadewa as shepherds, and Draupadi as a makeup artist.

Udyogaparwa Book contains the story of the war preparations Bharata (Bhāratayuddha). Krishna is acting as arbitrators fail to negotiate peace with the Kauravas. Pandavas and Kauravas find as many allies across Bharatawarsha, and almost the entire kingdom of Ancient India was divided into two groups.

Book early Bhismaparwa a book that tells about the battle at Kurukshetra. In some parts tucked a sacred conversation between Krishna and Arjuna before the war. The conversation is known as the book of the Bhagavad Gita. In the book also described the death Bhismaparwa Receipt Bhisma on the tenth day Arjuna efforts assisted by Srikandi

Dronaparwa Book tells the story of Drona Bagawan appointment as Kauravas warlord. Drona tried to capture Yudhisthira, but failed. Drona was killed on the battlefield because beheaded by Drestadyumna when he was dropped limply heard telling his son's death, Ashwatthama. In the book also tells the story of the death of Abhimanyu and Ghatotkacha.

Karnaparwa Book tells the story of Karna as commander of the appointment by the war after the death of Bhisma Duryodhana, Drona, and other allies. In the book recounted the death of Dushasana by Bhima. Shalya becomes Karna coachman, and then a quarrel between them. Finally, Karna was killed at the hands of Arjuna with the weapons Pasupati on day 17.

The Book contains the story Salyaparwa Shalya appointment as commander of the Kauravas war on day 18. On the same day, Shalya killed on the battlefield. After left allies and his brother, Duryodhana regretted his actions and to stop fighting with the Pandavas. It was a mockery of the Pandavas that Duryodhana was goaded into a fight with Bhima. In these fights, Duryodhana was killed, but he had lifted Ashwatthama as commander.

Sauptikaparwa Book contains the story of revenge in the army of Pandavas Ashwatthama. At night, he and Kripa and Kritavarma infiltrated the Pandava army camp and killed many people, except for the Pandavas. After that he fled to the monastery of Vyasa. The next day he was followed by the Pandavas and a fight broke out between Ashwatthama with Arjuna. Vyasa and Krishna can solve that problem. Finally Ashwatthama regretted his actions and became a hermit.

The Book contains the story Striparwa wailing women left by their husbands on the battlefield. Yudhisthira bodies burning ceremony for those killed and offer holy water to the ancestors. On the same day to tell the birth of Dewi Kunti, Karna was the secret of his personality.

The Book contains the story Santiparwa Yudhisthira inner conflict of having killed his brothers on the battlefield. Finally he was given the sacred discourse by Rsi Vyasa and Sri Krishna. They explain the secret of Hinduism and objectives in order to carry out its obligations Yudhisthira as a king.

The Book contains the story Anusasanaparwa submission to the Receipt Bhisma Yudhisthira to receive his teachings. Bhisma teach about the doctrine of Dharma, Artha, rules about the various ceremonies, the obligation of a king, and so on. Finally, Bhisma leave the world in peace.

Aswamedhikaparwa Book contains the story of Aswamedha ceremony by King Yudhisthira. The book also tells the story of Arjuna's battle with the king in the world, the story of the birth of Parikshit who had been killed in the womb because Ashwatthama magic weapon, but was revived by Sri Krishna.

The Book contains the story Asramawasikaparwa departure Drestarastra, Gandhari, Kunti, Vidura and Sanjaya into the jungle, to leave the busy world. They handed over completely to Yudhisthira to the throne. Finally, Rishi Narada came with news that they had gone to heaven because of his sacred flame burned by itself.

Scripture tells extinction Mosalaparwa Vrishni nation. Sri Krishna left his kingdom and went into the woods. Arjuna visited Dwarawati and found that the city was empty. On the advice of Vyasa Rsi, the Pandavas and Draupadi through life "sanyasin" or isolate himself and left the mortal world.

Mahaprastanikaparwa Book tells the story of the Pandavas and Draupadi travel to the Himalayan peaks, as submitted to the throne Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna. In his wanderings, Draupadi and the Pandavas (except Yudhisthira), died on his way.


Book tells the story of Yudhisthira Swargarohanaparwa a Himalayan mountain peak, and picked up to reach heaven by the god Indra. Along the way, he was accompanied by a dog who is very loyal. He refused to go to heaven if told to leave the dog alone. The dog showed his form is sebenanrnya, the god Dharma.


Mahabharata is the story of flashbacks told by sage Vaisampayana for Maharaja failed Janamejaya victims snake ceremony. In accordance with the request Janamejaya, the story is a story of great kings in the line of Maharaja Yayati, Bharata, and Kuru, which is nothing but a Maharaja Janamejaya forefathers. Then the Kuru kings down Hastinapur the main character of the Mahabharata. They are Santanu, Chitrāngada, Vichitravirya, Dhritarashtra, Pandu, Yudhisthira, Parikshit and Janamejaya.

The King of ancient India
Mahabharata many names come up big kings in the days of ancient India as Bharata, Kuru, Parikshit (Parikshita), and Janamejaya. Mahabharata is a great story of the descendants of Bharata, and Bharata is one of the kings who lowered the main characters in the Mahabharata.

The story of Bharata preceded by a meeting with King Dushyanta Sakuntala. King Dushyanta was a great king from Yayati Chandrawangsa descent, married Shakuntala from Kanwa Bagawan hermitage, then lowered the Bharata, the legendary king. The Bharata and conquer the ancient Indian mainland. After the conquest, the region is their authority, which means Bharatawarsha Maharaja Bharata's territory (reportedly including South Asia) [2]. The Bharata reduce the Hasti, who later founded a center of government called Hastinapur. The decrease of Kings Hasti Hastinapur. Of the family, was born of the Kuru, which controls and purify a large area called the Kurukshetra (located in the state of Haryana, Northern India). The Kuru Kuru Dynasty reduce or Kaurawa House. In the dynasty, was born Pratipa, who became the father of King Santanu, ancestors Pandavas and Kauravas.

Relatives House Kaurawa (Kuru Dynasty) is Yadawa House, because the House comes from the same ancestor, namely Maharaja Yayati, a knight of the House of Chandra or Soma dynasty, descendants of the Pururavas. In House Yadawa pedigree, born King Vasudeva, King of the Kingdom Surasena, which then berputera the Krishna, who founded the kingdom of Dwaraka. The House of Lord Krishna from the Yadawa cousins of the Pandavas and Kauravas Kaurawa House.

King Santanu and his descendants
King Santanu was a famous king of the Kuru lineage, derived from Hastinapur. He was married to Goddess Ganga is doomed to fall into the world, but the goddess Ganga left him for violating King vows. The relationship with the goddess Ganga King had led to children who are named Dewabrata or Bhishma. After left Goddess Ganga, King Santanu eventually became a widower. A few years later, King Santanu resume family life by marrying the Goddess Satyawati, daughter of a fisherman. From the relationship, berputera Majesty The Chitrāngada and Wicitrawirya. Chitrāngada died at a young age in a battle, then he was succeeded by his brother that is Vichitravirya. Vichitravirya also died at a young age and have not had a chance to have offspring. Rishi Vyasa for your help, the second wife of Vichitravirya, Ambika and Ambalika ie, each gave birth to a son, Pandu their names (from Ambalika) and Dhritarashtra (from Ambika).

Dhritarashtra was born blind, then submitted to the throne of Hastinapur Pandu, his brother. Pandu married Kunti and has three sons named Yudhisthira, Bhima, and Arjuna. Then Pandu married for the second time with Madri, and has twin sons named Nakula and Sahadev. Five sons of Pandu are known as the Pandavas. Blind Dhritarashtra married Gandhari, and has a hundred sons and a daughter known as Kauravas. Pandu and Dhritarashtra has a younger brother named Vidura. Vidura has a son named Sanjaya, who have the inner eye to be able to see past, present, and future.
Family Dhritarashtra, Pandu, and Vidura build roads Mahabharata story.

Pandavas and Kauravas
Pandavas and Kauravas are two groups with different characteristics but originating from the same ancestor, namely Kuru and Bharata. Kauravas (Duryodhana in particular) are cunning and always with an excess of jealousy Pandavas, while the Pandavas are calm and always be patient when oppressed by their cousins. Father of the Kauravas, Dhritarashtra ie, very fond of her son. This made it is often instigated by his in-laws are Shakuni, along with his favorite son of Duryodhana, in order to allow him to get rid of the evil plans of the Pandavas.

At one time, Duryodhana invited Kunti and the Pandavas for the holidays. There they stayed in a house that already provided by Duryodhana. At night, the house was burned. But the Pandavas were saved by Bhima, so they are not burnt alive in the house. After the escape, the Pandavas and Kunti in the woods. Bhima in the forest to meet with Hidimba demon and killed him, then married her sister, the rakshasi Hidimbi. Of the marriage, was born Ghatotkacha.

After going through the jungle, past the Royal Panchala Pandavas. There news came that the king held a contest Drupada fighting goddess Draupadi. Karna join the competition, but rejected by Draupadi. Pandavas had participated attended the competition, but they were dressed like the Brahmins. Arjuna represents the Pandavas to win the competition and he managed to do it. After that fight happen because the audience grumbled because the Brahmins should not join the competition. Pandavas fight then escaped. when he got home, they told his mother that they arrived with the results beg. Their mother was told that the results are shared equally to all siblings. However, how shocked she was when she saw that her children not only bring the results to beg, but also a woman. No doubt, the five Pandavas marry Draupadi.

To avoid fierce fighting, Kuru kingdom was divided in half to share the Pandavas and Kauravas. Kuru kingdom ruled Kauravas mother (center) with capital Hastinapura, while the Pandavas ruled the kingdom with the capital Indraprastha Kurujanggala. Both Hastinapur and Indraprastha has magnificent palace, and that's where Duryodhana fell into the pond that he thought the floor, so he was the subject of ridicule for Draupadi. That made more angry to the Pandavas.

To seize the wealth and royal Yudhishthira slowly but surely, Duryodhana invited Yudhishthira to play dice with the stakes and the royal treasure. Yudhisthira, who liked to play dice did not reject the invitation and agreed to come to Hastinapur hoping to seize the property and the palace of Duryodhana. At the dice game, Duryodhana who was represented by a supernatural power Shakuni to cheat. One by one the wealth Yudhisthira fall into the hands of Duryodhana, including his own brother and his wife. In the event, trying to pull Draupadi clothes by Dushasana because Duryodhana had become the property since Yudhisthira lost the dice, but these efforts did not succeed thanks to the help from Sri Krishna's magical. Because his wife insulted, Bhima vowed to kill Dushasana and drank their blood later. After the oath, Dhritarashtra feel that disaster would befall his descendants, so he returned all the property which is used as Yudhisthira bets.

Duryodhana who was disappointed that Dhritarashtra has returned all the real property would be his, holding the dice game for the second time. This time, who the loser has to hand over the kingdom, and retreated to the jungle for 12 years, after living in disguise for a year period, and then right back again into his kingdom. For the second time, Yudhisthira follow the game and once again he lost. Because of these losses, the Pandavas were forced to leave their kingdom for 12 years and living in disguise for a year period.

After a period of exile spent and in accordance with legal agreements, the Pandavas have the right to take back the kingdom led by Duryodhana. Yet is evil Duryodhana. He did not want to give the kingdom to the Pandavas, though any area of the needle tip. It made the Pandavas out of patience. Peace mission conducted by Sri Krishna, but repeatedly failed. Finally, the battle was inevitable.

Battle of Kurukshetra
Pandavas tried to find allies and the troops he had help from the Kingdom of wealth, Matsya Kingdom, the Kingdom of Pandya, Chola Kingdom, the Kingdom of Kerala, the kingdom of Magadha, Wangsa Yadawa, Dwaraka Kingdom, and many more. Also great warriors such as Bharatawarsha Drupada, Satyaki, Drestadyumna, Heroine, Virata, and others joined in favor Pandavas. Meanwhile Duryodhana asked Bhishma to lead the Kauravas army and appointed supreme commander of Kauravas army. Kauravas assisted by Rishi Ashwatthama Drona and his son, brother-in-law of the Kauravas is Jayadratha, and teachers Kripa, Kretawarma, Shalya, Sudaksina, Burisrawas, Bahlika, Shakuni, Karna, and much more.

The battle lasted for 18 days. In that battle, many warriors who died, such as Abhimanyu, Drona, Karna, Bhishma, Gatotkaca, Irawan, King Virata and his son, Bhagadatta, Susharma, Shakuni, and much more. During the 18 days was filled with bloodshed and massacre pathetic. At the end of the eighteenth day, only ten warriors who survive the battle, they are: Five Pandavas, Yuyutsu, Satyaki, Ashwatthama, Kripa and Kretawarma.

Successor House of Kuru
After the war, Yudhisthira was crowned as the King of Hastinapur. Having ruled for a while, he handed the throne to the grandson of Arjuna, which is Parikshit. Then, Yudhisthira along with the Pandavas and Draupadi as the Himalayan mountain climbing final destination of their journey. There they died and reached heaven. Kuru Kingdom Parikshit ruled justly and wisely. He is married and has a son Madrawati named Janamejaya. Janamejaya married Wapushtama (Bhamustiman) and has a son named Satanika. Satanika berputera Aswamedhadatta. Aswamedhadatta and his descendants later led the Royal House of Kurus in Hastinapur.

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